MOH UPDATE ON THE HIV/AIDS SITUATION IN SINGAPORE 2016 (JUNE 2017)

   1      408 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections were reported among Singapore residents in 2016. This brings the total number of HIV-infected Singapore residents to 7,548 as of end 2016, of whom 1,888 had passed away. The number of new cases of HIV infections reported in 2016 is lower as compared to previous years where the number has remained consistent at about 450 per year since 2008.

2        Of the 408 cases reported in 2016, 93% were male and 72% were between 20 to 49 years old. About 41% already had late-stage HIV infection when they were diagnosed. This has remained similar to the 40% recorded in 2015.

3        Sexual intercourse remains the main mode of HIV transmission. 95% (389 out of 408) of the cases acquired the infection through sexual intercourse. Heterosexual was the mode of transmission for 36% of all cases, while 52% were from homosexual transmission and 7% from bisexual transmission.

4        40% of the newly reported cases were detected in the course of medical care provision3. Such cases are typically at the late stage of their HIV infection. Another 27% were detected during routine programmatic HIV screening4 and 24% were detected as a result of voluntary HIV screening. Cases detected via voluntary screening are more likely to be at the early stage of their infection. When differentiated by sexual transmission, a higher proportion of homosexuals/ bisexuals (38%) had their HIV infection detected via voluntary screening compared to heterosexuals (5%). (Please refer to the Annex for details.)

Public Advisory

5        The most effective way to prevent HIV infection is to remain faithful to one’s spouse/ partner and to avoid casual sex, or sex with sex workers. Persons engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour, such as having multiple sexual partners or engaging in casual or commercial sex, are strongly advised to use condoms to reduce their risk of HIV infection. Condoms should be used consistently and correctly during every sexual encounter.

6        The Ministry of Health and the Health Promotion Board (HPB) urge individuals who engage in high-risk sexual behaviour to go for early and regular HIV testing. With early diagnosis, an infected person can be treated earlier, and receive counselling on how to protect their partners from infection.  Early treatment and care can delay the onset of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and allows the infected individual to live an active and productive life. Early treatment also reduces HIV spread in the community.

7        HPB has been working with partner organisations to conduct programmes and campaigns targeted at high-risk individuals to urge them to go for regular HIV testing. HPB’s partners conduct various educational outreach programmes on HIV prevention and management using a lifestyle approach. These programmes reach out to at-risk individuals through social settings to encourage them to take protective measures and to go for early and regular HIV testing.

8        More information about HIV and AIDS can be found at www.healthhub.sg 

ANNEX 

TABLE 1
NUMBER OF SINGAPORE RESIDENTS REPORTED WITH HIV /AIDS
(1985 – 2016) 

YearHIV/AIDS
MaleFemaleTotalRate*
19852020.8
19866172.8
1987100103.9
1988150155.8
198991103.8
1990170176.2
19913934215
19924965519.3
19935866422
199476108629.1
1995102911136.8
19961231613945.3
19971571617355.4
19981673219962.6
19991713520663.8
20001933322669
20012043323771.3
20022062823469.2
20032123024271.9
20042902131191.1
20052873031791.4
200632732359101.8
200739231423118.1
200842630456125.2
200941845463124
201040338441116.9
201143031461121.7
201243732469122.8
201342826454118.1
201442234456117.81
201542332455116.6
201638028408103.7
Total68796697548
 * per million resident population.

TABLE 2
DISTRIBUTION OF HIV/AIDS – INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS
BY MODES OF TRANSMISSION
(1985 – 2016) 

Mode of Transmission1985 – 20092010201120122013201420152016Total
Sexual Transmission
            Heterosexual29022282102201882171711484284
            Homosexual9351631952102101812322132339
            Bisexual29841422738423528551
Intravenous drug use1014424144124
Blood Transfusion3000000 03
Renal Transplant overseas5000000 05
Perinatal (mother to child)292*000002*33
Uncertain1313101014151313209
Total44044414614694544564554087548

*Transmission occurred overseas

HIV/AIDS – INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS
BY MARITAL STATUS AND SEX
(1985 – 2016) 

Marital status1985 – 20092010201120122013201420152016Total
Male
Single24062653002952922873212824448
Married10961081011029210264681733
Divorced/Separated37326263138272924574
Widowed814396696124
Total39564034304374284224233806879
Female
Single868878451127
Married26820141314221816385
Divorced/Separated6166103699110
Widowed33432120247
Total44838313226343228669
Total
Single24922733083023002913262834575
Married136412811511510612482842118
Divorced/Separated43432324141333833684
Widowed11486117898171
Total44044414614694544564554087548


TABLE 4
HIV/AIDS – INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY ETHNIC GROUP
(1985 – 2016) 

Ethnic Group1985 – 20092010201120122013201420152016Total
Chinese36063293553563233013402755885
Malay482697780949072881051
Indian18927242222412229377
Others1271651115242116235
Total44044414614694544564554087548


TABLE 5
HIV/AIDS – INFECTED MALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2016) 

Age group1986 – 20092010201120122013201420152016Total
Male Heterosexual
15  – 19600001108
20 – 2924216121514151310337
30 – 3966630282523292517843
40 – 49742584842365041301047
50 – 5948847486852493441827
60 & above35341453938393023608
Total24971921811891631831441213670
Homosexual/Bisexual
15  – 1924439154252
20 – 2932650737270618082814
30 – 39523778681777593671079
40 – 4927558525866505660675
50 – 596712181231282925222
60 & above11254345539
Total12262032372362482232672412881
Others
  0 – 1415200000219
15 –19411110019
20 –2929012262143
30 –3979222242396
40 –4965313613587
50 –5930072334453
60 & above11002321221
Total2338121217161218328
Total
  0 – 1415200000219
15  – 19345410265369
20 – 29597668689868295931194
30 – 391268109116108102108120872018
40 – 491082119101103108101100951809
50 – 59585597382868067701102
60 & above37543504544453630668
Total39564034304374284224233806879

TABLE 6
HIV/AIDS – INFECTED FEMALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2016) 

Age group1985-20092010201120122013201420152016Total
Female Sexual
15  – 198101110 012
20 – 291265635225149
30 – 391197748883161
40 – 49808485997123
50 – 595495124978100
60& above25774253453
Total41237293225342927598
Others
 0 – 1415000000015
15 –19000000000
20 –29600000006
30 –397010001110
40 –49511010109
50 –59100000102
60 & above200000002
Total36120103144
Total
  0 – 1415000000015
15  – 198101110012
20 – 291325635225160
30 – 391267848894174
40 – 498595869107139
50 – 595595124988110
60 & above27774253459
Total44838313226343228669

[1] Singapore citizens and permanent residents

[2] CD4+ cell count of less than 200 per cu mm or AIDS-defining opportunistic infections or both

[3] Includes cases that presented with HIV-specific symptoms and cases with non-HIV related medical conditions

[4] Includes screening programmes for individuals with sexually transmitted infections, hospital inpatients and those identified through contact tracing

Last updated on 5 Jun 2017