MOH UPDATE ON THE HIV/AIDS SITUATION IN SINGAPORE 2016 (JUNE 2017)

   1      408 new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections were reported among Singapore residents in 2016. This brings the total number of HIV-infected Singapore residents to 7,548 as of end 2016, of whom 1,888 had passed away. The number of new cases of HIV infections reported in 2016 is lower as compared to previous years where the number has remained consistent at about 450 per year since 2008.

2        Of the 408 cases reported in 2016, 93% were male and 72% were between 20 to 49 years old. About 41% already had late-stage HIV infection when they were diagnosed. This has remained similar to the 40% recorded in 2015.

3        Sexual intercourse remains the main mode of HIV transmission. 95% (389 out of 408) of the cases acquired the infection through sexual intercourse. Heterosexual was the mode of transmission for 36% of all cases, while 52% were from homosexual transmission and 7% from bisexual transmission.

4        40% of the newly reported cases were detected in the course of medical care provision3. Such cases are typically at the late stage of their HIV infection. Another 27% were detected during routine programmatic HIV screening4 and 24% were detected as a result of voluntary HIV screening. Cases detected via voluntary screening are more likely to be at the early stage of their infection. When differentiated by sexual transmission, a higher proportion of homosexuals/ bisexuals (38%) had their HIV infection detected via voluntary screening compared to heterosexuals (5%). (Please refer to the Annex for details.)

Public Advisory

5        The most effective way to prevent HIV infection is to remain faithful to one’s spouse/ partner and to avoid casual sex, or sex with sex workers. Persons engaging in high-risk sexual behaviour, such as having multiple sexual partners or engaging in casual or commercial sex, are strongly advised to use condoms to reduce their risk of HIV infection. Condoms should be used consistently and correctly during every sexual encounter.

6        The Ministry of Health and the Health Promotion Board (HPB) urge individuals who engage in high-risk sexual behaviour to go for early and regular HIV testing. With early diagnosis, an infected person can be treated earlier, and receive counselling on how to protect their partners from infection.  Early treatment and care can delay the onset of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and allows the infected individual to live an active and productive life. Early treatment also reduces HIV spread in the community.

7        HPB has been working with partner organisations to conduct programmes and campaigns targeted at high-risk individuals to urge them to go for regular HIV testing. HPB’s partners conduct various educational outreach programmes on HIV prevention and management using a lifestyle approach. These programmes reach out to at-risk individuals through social settings to encourage them to take protective measures and to go for early and regular HIV testing.

8        More information about HIV and AIDS can be found at www.healthhub.sg 

ANNEX 

TABLE 1
NUMBER OF SINGAPORE RESIDENTS REPORTED WITH HIV /AIDS
(1985 – 2016) 

Year HIV/AIDS
Male Female Total Rate*
1985 2 0 2 0.8
1986 6 1 7 2.8
1987 10 0 10 3.9
1988 15 0 15 5.8
1989 9 1 10 3.8
1990 17 0 17 6.2
1991 39 3 42 15
1992 49 6 55 19.3
1993 58 6 64 22
1994 76 10 86 29.1
1995 102 9 111 36.8
1996 123 16 139 45.3
1997 157 16 173 55.4
1998 167 32 199 62.6
1999 171 35 206 63.8
2000 193 33 226 69
2001 204 33 237 71.3
2002 206 28 234 69.2
2003 212 30 242 71.9
2004 290 21 311 91.1
2005 287 30 317 91.4
2006 327 32 359 101.8
2007 392 31 423 118.1
2008 426 30 456 125.2
2009 418 45 463 124
2010 403 38 441 116.9
2011 430 31 461 121.7
2012 437 32 469 122.8
2013 428 26 454 118.1
2014 422 34 456 117.81
2015 423 32 455 116.6
2016 380 28 408 103.7
Total 6879 669 7548
 * per million resident population.

TABLE 2
DISTRIBUTION OF HIV/AIDS – INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS
BY MODES OF TRANSMISSION
(1985 – 2016) 

Mode of Transmission 1985 – 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Sexual Transmission
            Heterosexual 2902 228 210 220 188 217 171 148 4284
            Homosexual 935 163 195 210 210 181 232 213 2339
            Bisexual 298 41 42 27 38 42 35 28 551
Intravenous drug use 101 4 4 2 4 1 4 4 124
Blood Transfusion 3 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 3
Renal Transplant overseas 5 0 0 0 0 0 0  0 5
Perinatal (mother to child) 29 2* 0 0 0 0 0 2* 33
Uncertain 131 3 10 10 14 15 13 13 209
Total 4404 441 461 469 454 456 455 408 7548

*Transmission occurred overseas

HIV/AIDS – INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS
BY MARITAL STATUS AND SEX
(1985 – 2016) 

Marital status 1985 – 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Male
Single 2406 265 300 295 292 287 321 282 4448
Married 1096 108 101 102 92 102 64 68 1733
Divorced/Separated 373 26 26 31 38 27 29 24 574
Widowed 81 4 3 9 6 6 9 6 124
Total 3956 403 430 437 428 422 423 380 6879
Female
Single 86 8 8 7 8 4 5 1 127
Married 268 20 14 13 14 22 18 16 385
Divorced/Separated 61 6 6 10 3 6 9 9 110
Widowed 33 4 3 2 1 2 0 2 47
Total 448 38 31 32 26 34 32 28 669
Total
Single 2492 273 308 302 300 291 326 283 4575
Married 1364 128 115 115 106 124 82 84 2118
Divorced/Separated 434 32 32 41 41 33 38 33 684
Widowed 114 8 6 11 7 8 9 8 171
Total 4404 441 461 469 454 456 455 408 7548


TABLE 4
HIV/AIDS – INFECTED SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY ETHNIC GROUP
(1985 – 2016) 

Ethnic Group 1985 – 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Chinese 3606 329 355 356 323 301 340 275 5885
Malay 482 69 77 80 94 90 72 88 1051
Indian 189 27 24 22 22 41 22 29 377
Others 127 16 5 11 15 24 21 16 235
Total 4404 441 461 469 454 456 455 408 7548


TABLE 5
HIV/AIDS – INFECTED MALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2016) 

Age group 1986 – 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Male  Heterosexual
15  – 19 6 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 8
20 – 29 242 16 12 15 14 15 13 10 337
30 – 39 666 30 28 25 23 29 25 17 843
40 – 49 742 58 48 42 36 50 41 30 1047
50 – 59 488 47 48 68 52 49 34 41 827
60 & above 353 41 45 39 38 39 30 23 608
Total 2497 192 181 189 163 183 144 121 3670
Homosexual/Bisexual
15  – 19 24 4 3 9 1 5 4 2 52
20 – 29 326 50 73 72 70 61 80 82 814
30 – 39 523 77 86 81 77 75 93 67 1079
40 – 49 275 58 52 58 66 50 56 60 675
50 – 59 67 12 18 12 31 28 29 25 222
60 & above 11 2 5 4 3 4 5 5 39
Total 1226 203 237 236 248 223 267 241 2881
Others
  0 – 14 15 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 19
15 –19 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 9
20 –29 29 0 1 2 2 6 2 1 43
30 –39 79 2 2 2 2 4 2 3 96
40 –49 65 3 1 3 6 1 3 5 87
50 –59 30 0 7 2 3 3 4 4 53
60 & above 11 0 0 2 3 2 1 2 21
Total 233 8 12 12 17 16 12 18 328
Total
  0 – 14 15 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 19
15  – 19 34 5 4 10 2 6 5 3 69
20 – 29 597 66 86 89 86 82 95 93 1194
30 – 39 1268 109 116 108 102 108 120 87 2018
40 – 49 1082 119 101 103 108 101 100 95 1809
50 – 59 585 59 73 82 86 80 67 70 1102
60 & above 375 43 50 45 44 45 36 30 668
Total 3956 403 430 437 428 422 423 380 6879

TABLE 6
HIV/AIDS – INFECTED FEMALE SINGAPORE RESIDENTS BY AGE AND MODES OF TRANSMISSION (1985 – 2016) 

Age group 1985-2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Female  Sexual
15  – 19 8 1 0 1 1 1 0  0 12
20 – 29 126 5 6 3 5 2 2 5 149
30 – 39 119 7 7 4 8 8 8 3 161
40 – 49 80 8 4 8 5 9 9 7 123
50 – 59 54 9 5 12 4 9 7 8 100
60& above 25 7 7 4 2 5 3 4 53
Total 412 37 29 32 25 34 29 27 598
Others
 0 – 14 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
15 –19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
20 –29 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6
30 –39 7 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 10
40 –49 5 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 9
50 –59 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2
60 & above 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
Total 36 1 2 0 1 0 3 1 44
Total
  0 – 14 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15
15  – 19 8 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 12
20 – 29 132 5 6 3 5 2 2 5 160
30 – 39 126 7 8 4 8 8 9 4 174
40 – 49 85 9 5 8 6 9 10 7 139
50 – 59 55 9 5 12 4 9 8 8 110
60 & above 27 7 7 4 2 5 3 4 59
Total 448 38 31 32 26 34 32 28 669

[1] Singapore citizens and permanent residents

[2] CD4+ cell count of less than 200 per cu mm or AIDS-defining opportunistic infections or both

[3] Includes cases that presented with HIV-specific symptoms and cases with non-HIV related medical conditions

[4] Includes screening programmes for individuals with sexually transmitted infections, hospital inpatients and those identified through contact tracing

Last updated on 5 Jun 2017